Gold Mine Tours
Gold mining history tour Johannesburg.
Johannesburg Historical Gold Mine Tours.
Indeed, south of Johannesburg lies the largest subterranean gold reef in the world.
Specialised Johannesburg gold history tour. Johannesburg’s growth from a tented town to thus becoming the gold capital of the world.
Accordingly this specialty tour gives you an understanding of Johannesburg’s 134 years of gold history.
From the main gold reef find through the Anglo Boer war, then the many miners’ strikes.
Additionally the remaining mine headgear and gold mine waste dumps.
Including recent problems around acid mine drainage.
Ekala Eco Tours can condense some of the Gold history of Johannesburg into a day tour.
However to cover the items in a more comprehensive way, does require 3 or more days allocated to the tour.
Consequently an understanding of Johannesburg’s Gold Mining and its role in the establishment of Johannesburg and South Africa as a whole.
Johannesburg Gold History Tour
Gold rush route Johannesburg – the gold capital of the world. The Witwatersrand ‘ridge of white waters’ the richest gold area/reef in the world.
An enormously valuable gold reef, most however buried below the surface.
Johannesburg – Major world city – founded in a water-less, treeless, barren dust bowl of the then Randjeslaagte farm and became known as the Rand and Witwatersrand.
Ekala Eco Tours covers and goes into 2 or 3 (time dependant) historical gold mines and then visits one of the earliest Johannesburg mine stopes. Perfectly preserved.
A single day tour however, we only cover one of the historical gold mines.
Then currently, no operational gold mine supplies tours or even allows access to the mine property by the general public.
Ekala has access to many of these areas, however are problems relating to – `zama–zamas‘ – illegal miners.
Hence no direct access (or safe access) to the actual old Johannesburg gold mine shafts.
Thus only option for an operational mine underground tour is the Cullinan diamond mine.
So Johannesburg’s first residents with gold in their veins.
Early people in the area, gold prospectors and additionally people caught up in the events:
Brothers Fred and Harry Struben:
Owned sections of adjoining farms Sterkfontein and Wilgespruit. They were the most active of the then gold prospectors in the area at the time.
Consequently discovered a rich in gold, quartz vein and named it the Confidence Reef. Thus founded the Confidence Reef gold mine. As a result running a five-stamp battery in the area.
However they then made more money crushing other prospectors gold bearing rock than gold from the Confidence Reef. Additionally buying shares in new gold mines.
Harry served on the firsts Diggers Committee and was then elected first president of South African Chamber of Mines.
Ran the first store and then a hotel on the Crocodile River, Muldersdrift, and Witwatersrand.
Moved to Ferreira’s Camp, one of the early gold mines in the area, to accordingly open one of the first hotels in Johannesburg.
President of the Transvaal Republic. Transvaal Republic covered the full area of all the then gold finds.
Gerhardus, Nellie and Petronella Oosthuizen:
Farmers and landowners, including portion of the farm Langlaagte where main gold reef was discovered and accordingly leading to the official proclamation of a gold field on the Witwatersrand.
The 3 George’s – George Harrison, George Walker and George Honeyball.
Masons and Carpenters, but working in the area for amongst others, the Oosthuizen’s and Strubens. George Harrison is however credited with the find of the main Johannesburg gold reef.
Jan Gerritse Bantjes:
Discovered the Bird Reef on the Vogelstruisfontein farm and thus milled the gold bearing ore on the site as Bantjes Gold Mine. Accordingly part of the Struben brothers close group of friends during these times.
Erected the first gold bearing ore-crushing machine. A two-stamp battery initially on his farm Tweefontein, part of the current Krugersdorp/Mogale City, known today as the West Rand.
Lieutenant R N Lys and Godfrey Lys:
Step-nephew to the Strubens. Thus worked with the Struben brothers.
Fran’s, Louw and Judith Geldenhuys:
Found gold at Elandsfontein and established the then Geldenhuys Estates Gold Mining Company.
John Henry Davis:
Early find of significant quantities of gold on the farm Paardekraal. Part of the current Krugersdorp/Mogale City, west of Johannesburg, thus known as the West Rand.
Pieter J Marais:
Found small quantities of gold in the Crocodile and additionally the Jukskei River.
Discovered an alluvial gold deposit west of Johannesburg, near Krugersdorp.
Ekala’s gold mining tour covers an area of over 150 square kilometers.
Places covered on the tour (dependent on tour duration – 1 to 4 days):
Most towns west or east of Johannesburg came about directly through the then mining of the Main Gold Reef, along with the Main Reef Leader. A 120 km long gold reef that is seemingly bottomless.
Ekala thus covers as much of this area as can be covered in the time available. One day east of Johannesburg and one day west.
Additionally as may be possible to access on the day.
Indeed, a fully guided tour – discussing en-route the history and people as we drive through/cover this huge area.
Accordingly many of Johannesburg’s streets named after early gold prospecting pioneers.
George Harrison Park. Spot where gold reef found and accordingly George Harrison’s original gold claim.
Langlaagte Deep Village. Indeed, one of the earliest remaining gold mining villages, Crown mines, Langlaagte.
Gold Reef City: Actually only remaining gold mine in the Johannesburg area that has an operational shaft.
Shaft 14, crown mines, however tourists only, not an operational mine.
Accordingly one of hundreds of original shafts along the east west arc of gold bearing rock south of Johannesburg.
At this historical gold mine, we do take an underground tour to the upper level of the mine and additionally a visit and walk through the mine village.
Ferreira gold Mine Stope: Excellently preserved original stope (entrance to the then Ferreira Gold Mine).
Main Reef Road: Bears witness to over a century of gold mining.
Johannesburg City Centre:
Town Hall, Chamber of Mines, Original Randjeslaagte Beacon, marking the then northern edge of Johannesburg.
Main Street, Johannesburg – artifacts from the early days of gold mining in Johannesburg. Additionally the offices of BHP Billiton, Anglo platinum, Anglogold, Goldfields and Chamber of Mines.
Johannesburg Gold Mining district: Head offices of the biggest role players in the mining industry and location of one of the few remaining gold ore stamp batteries.
JSE – Johannesburg stock exchange. Largest securities exchange in Africa. Dating back to Johannesburg’s early gold days.
Although the current JSE is in Sandton.
Museum Africa: Includes exhibitions focusing on Johannesburg’s gold and mining life.
Mary Fitzgerald Square: Mary Fitzgerald, first woman trade unionist and key figure in the 1910 gold miners strike.
Workers Museum: A workers compound not directly linked to the gold mines, however identical to those used on mines in early years of mining in Johannesburg and provides insight into the way of life.
Early Mining (white) suburbs: Brixton, Mayfair, Fordsburg, Sophiatown.
Brixton and Braamfontein Cemeteries: Johannesburg’s forefathers. Resting place of Johannesburg’s early miners. Pauper graves and graves of the 1922 Rand Revolt.
Amazing what a walk through the cemetery’s can tell a visitor of Johannesburg’s history.
Ferreirasdorp: The oldest gold mining camp in Johannesburg.
Crown Mines: Site for the reprocessing of old mine dumps to recover remaining gold – Crown Gold Recoveries
West Rand (west of Johannesburg). Western part of Gauteng.
Including three Anglogold/Anglo Ashanti operations including Savuka, TauTona and Mponeng gold mine, currently the deepest and richest gold mine in the world.
Formerly the western deep levels south shaft, located on the north western rim of the Witwatersrand basin.
Kromdraai Gold Mine: Gold discovered by Johannes Stephanus Minnaar and became the first government gold mining concession on what was later to be known as the Witwatersrand.
At this gold mine we do take a tour inside the historical mine – along the incline shaft. Dependant on duration applied to the gold mine tour.
Randfontein: Randfontein Estates Gold Mining Company and Robinson Lake. Once owning the biggest private rail system in the world.
The remains of this can be seen during our visit to Randfontein – including a huge part of the mines steam engines.
Roodepoort: Vogelstruisfontein, Paardekraal and Wilgespruit, the first gold mine on the edge of the Witwatersrand.
Steam engine and original gold bearing ore-crushing machine, a five stamp battery of the Struben Confidence gold mine.
Delarey House, Old Municipal Offices, Roodepoort Cultural History Museum and the Town School, one of the oldest buildings in Roodepoort.
Vlakfontein Monument, commemorating the Jameson Raid.
Krugersdorp: West Rand Consolidated Mine.
Magaliesberg: Blaauwbank Gold Mine: Historic Gold Mine strongly connected with James Jennings and first mined in 1874 after Henry Lewis found quartzite gold in the area. Predates the main gold find in Johannesburg.
First official gold mining company in South Africa and established the “Nil Desperandum Co-operative Quartz Company” and later amalgamated into the Blaauwbank United Gold Mines Co. Ltd.
See how early gold miners worked the gold bearing ore and view original mining equipment.
Ekurhuleni (east of Johannesburg). Eastern part of Gauteng.
Dotted with towns that emerged as a result of gold mining in the Johannesburg area.
ERPM (East Rand Proprietary Mines): Combination of outcrop and deep level mining by the Farrar-Anglo French group. Sev mine, Cason mine shaft, Angelo deep shaft and the Broomfield gold mining village.
Including the areas of Boksburg, Benoni, and Brakpan.
Boksburg: Leeuwpoort once a farm with several of the richest and deepest gold mines in the world.
Benoni: Chimes, Modderfontein, Kleinfontein and Vlakfontein Gold Mines. Benoni Gold Mining Company first to mine in the area.
Strikers route, Benoni museum and insight into the miner’s strikes.
Brakpan: Flourished with coal and gold mines for over 50 years.
Germiston: Elandsfontein and Simmer and Jack gold Mine museum.
Rand Refinery, largest gold refinery since 1922 and refining all South African gold. Supplied the gold blanks for minting of the Kruger Rand’s.
Springs: Once the largest single gold producing area in the world and the original fuel source (Coal) supplier for the gold mining industry.
Modderfontein: Oldest industrial area and site of the original Johannesburg Dynamite company. Johannesburg quickly became the biggest dynamite user in the world.
Also visit the Modderfontein dynamite village.
Witwatersrand – early name for the area around and including Johannesburg – meaning “ridge of white waters” but with a massive gold reef below the surface.
First gold found in the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg Rand area was in quartz rock and in addition as alluvial gold.
However in small quantities only.
Then the main gold reef find of 1886 changed this.
Quantities of gold were actually high. This gold however was different to any gold find anywhere in the world previously.
Main source of Johannesburg’s Gold was in a conglomerate formation then called “Banket”.
Consequently Johannesburg grew from nothing into a tented town with a population of several thousand within a matter of weeks of its proclamation in October 1886.
Farms situated on the Witwatersrand/Johannesburg proclaimed, as public gold diggings included the then farms of:
Driefontein, Elandsfontein, Turffontein, Langlaagte, Roodepoort, Paardekraal, Vogelstruisfontein and southern portion of Doornfontein.
Part of the then government farm, Randjeslaagte, was also proclaimed as public gold diggings.
Johannesburg gold reef, actually made up of various layers, including the Main Reef, Main Leader Reef and South Reef.
While collectively produced most of the worlds gold for close to 100 years.
The defining moments covered on the gold tour
Main gold reef find of 1886.
Anglo Boer war of 1899 – 1902 although generally today referred to as the South African War – see battlefield tours).
Consequently with the British eager to take control of Johannesburg/Witwatersrand and the gold mines.
Miners strikes of 1910/1913/1946/1987
Rand revolt – 1922 – When war came to Johannesburg streets, thus changing the course of South Africa’s history. With 22000 gold and coal miners in open revolt against the State.
Martial law – then with bombs and shells raining down on Johannesburg suburbs of Fordsburg, Jeppe, Brixton, Ferreirastown and Vrededorp.
So Gold, War and people trying to protect their livelihood as gold miners.
Gold Landscape viewed while on the tour
Greater Johannesburg Highveld, a fragmented landscape of gold mine shafts, head gears, dams, blue gum forests and then strangely shaped mountains.
Johannesburg’s distinctive mine dumps, spread across the south of Johannesburg, from West to East.
Then at the base of these mine dumps, lie the slime’s dams. Man made “lakes” actually used in the processing of the gold.
In Johannesburg’s early days, it was more the individual who became famous. It was not long after that these prospectors were replaced with entrepreneurs with vast financial resources.
Today it is giant gold mining houses. BHP Billiton, Anglo platinum, Anglo Gold and Goldfields that form the major part of the gold mining corporations of South Africa.
Most of today’s profitable gold mines are in the west of Johannesburg, in the area of Carletonville.
Gold Mines of Savuka, TauTona and Mponeng that make up the most technically advanced mines in the world. Additionally the deepest gold mines in the world.
Gold bearing reef layers are known as the Main Reef – Main Reef Leader – South Reef and were collectively called the Main Reef Group of Conglomerates.
Accordingly in over 90 years, over a third of the world’s gold came from these reefs.
Also the world’s primary source of uranium.
Consequently South Africa has become a world leader in gold mining technology and deep level gold mining.
The deepest gold mines in the world – over 4000 metres below the surface.
Environmental mining issues of today covered on the gold tour
Waste from gold mines, including the Western Basin, Eastern Basin and Central Witwatersrand mining basin.
Thus constituting the largest source of pollution in South Africa. Hazards of acid mine drainage, from historical and current gold mining.
Decanting of flooded gold mines.
Surface and groundwater pollution.
Degradation of the soil dust pollution.
Heavy metals in water supply.
Mining induced earthquakes, rock bursts and the formation of sinkholes.
Arsenic, cyanide as well as other hazardous substances including Radon gas emanating from the gold mine dumps.
Abandoned gold mines and slimes dams.
Not the highlight of our tour – but does show the damage caused by over a century of gold mining.
With the high background radiation in the area – due to naturally occurring Uranium. Not an area you wish to spend any significant length of time.
However, vulnerable, improvised communities do live in these areas. In shacks amongst the abandoned mines and waste dumps and are exposed to poisoning from every possible source daily.
Acid Mine Drainage – the implications and the damage.
Other items we cover in the tour – dependent on tour duration allocated and booked.
160 square kilometers of Johannesburg and surrounding areas. Covering over 130 years of gold history.
Gold Mine tailings reprocessing using sophisticated methods to remove the minutest traces of gold (and other minerals).
Labour requirements for the gold mines. Including the use of Chinese indentured labour and black laborers that left their rural homes to seek employment on the mines.
Growth of South African mine worker organizations, including the African mine workers union, the national union of mineworkers and COSATU.
Development of a new social class in Johannesburg. Johannesburg Randlords or mining magnates.
Becoming extremely wealthy in a few short years and needed homes befitting their new status.
Their extravagant taste is reflected in houses built on the Rand/Johannesburg ridges
Underground Mine Tour Rules: No persons with disabilities, pregnant, or who suffer from claustrophobia may go on an underground mine tour.
Underground operational gold mine tours are currently unavailable.
None of the operational gold mines in Gauteng or the Free state will currently allow entry by the general public.
Our full historical and fully guided tours through the area are certainly available – only no access to the operational shafts.
Operational diamond mine is available – Cullinan Underground tours.
Mineral rich soil and in its sediment:
Gold – Uranium – iron pyrites
Gold – Krugerrands
Introduced to the world in 1967, at a time of world sanctions against South Africa.
Encouraging private ownership of gold and by 1980 accounted for 90% of the world gold coin market.
Appreciation of South Africa’s multifaceted heritage.
Ekala’s gold mining tours can then be adapted to the client’s individual needs.
Accordingly we accommodate specific and personal requirements.
Ekala Family & Guides
Ekala family & mine tour guides
We pride ourselves on our extensive knowledge of South Africa’s mining history.
Thus we focus were our experience and expertise lies – in South Africa only.
Highly Experienced Guides
Accordingly with our vast experience and expertise, we will bring the tour to life.
Additionally sharing our love and knowledge of South Africa.
Ensuring as a result, you leave full of the best memories.
Thus Ekala will endeavor to personalise your gold mine tour package according to individual requirements/interests as well as available time .
Furthermore Ekala personally conducts and organises all our mine tours.
As highly experience and professional guides.
Consequently you get an enhanced understanding of South Africa’s gold mining.
Thus the best South African Experience
Enjoying while understanding South Africa’s past and current mining.
A gold mine tour to remember for the right reason
Gold mine tour prices:
No prices on our website as a result of the unique, individual and specialised requirements for each mine tour we supply.
Thus Ekala structure our mine tours around our client’s individual requirements.
So if time is limited:
We thus structure the tour from arrival to departure – including airport collection and drop off.
Accordingly using all time available as a fully guided professional gold mining tour.
Consequently not simply a point to point mixed group drive around.
As a result, mine tour quote based on your specific requirements.
Heritage sites and historical buildings indeed hold the memories and unique stories of days gone by.
Accordingly best way to experience South Africa’s gold mining and its history is with Ekala’s passion and knowledge.
Let Ekala share South Africa’s best experiences with you.
Private, professional and reliable tailor made gold mine tours
Visiting actual historical sites steeped in significant heritage.
Private collection and drop off – then supplied as a fully guided professional gold mining tour.